Geographic dispersal of parrot species of the genus Amazona on Greater and Lesser Antilles. Amazon parrots in the Caribbean are classified into three taxonomic groups. (Green) The Greater Antillean group related to (1) white-fronted amazon (Amazona albifrons) of Central America, includes (2) black-billed (A. agilis), (3) yellow-billed (A. collaria), (4) Cuban (A. leucocephala), Hispaniolan amazon (A. ventralis) and (6) Puerto Rican parrot (A. vittata). The Lesser Antillean Amazons are derived from two different colonization events, both from South America. The first group (Blue) is related to the (7) yellow-shouldered (A. barbadensis), and the (8) yellow-crowned (A. ochrocephala) amazons, and includes (9) red-necked amazon (A. arausiaca), and (10) St. Lucia’s parrot (A. versicolor). The second group (Red), is related to the (12) red-tailed amazon (A. brasiliensis), and includes (11) the imperial (A. imperialis), and (13) St. Vincent amazon (A. guilingii). Insert: A phylogram showing the relationship between the eight extant Amazona species of the Caribbean and their closest relatives on the mainland. Illustration courtesy of Taras K Oleksyk.
O’Brien GigaScience 2012 1:13 doi:10.1186/2047-217X-1-13